David Healer screamed in pain as he was assaulted by police custody sergeant Stephen Harvey and civilian detention officer Michael Mount after his arrest in County Durham in March last year.
The attack was condemned as a form of torture by the Independent Police Complaints Commission (IPCC).
Harvey, 50, and Mount, 61, were each convicted of two counts of common assault at a trial at Teesside Magistrates' Court in March.
Footage of the incident at Peterlee police station was played to the court.
The footage showed Harvey twisting Mr Healer's arm behind his back as Mount held his other arm.
He was then grabbed by both wrists across the custody suite desk by both defendants after again refusing to answer questions.
DIY shop boss Mr Healer, of Seaham, County Durham, who had recently been treated in hospital and was an angina sufferer, told the trial he thought he would die in the attack.
The 48-year-old is repeatedly heard requesting a doctor on the footage.
Harvey, of Chester-le-Street, and Mount, of Thornley, both County Durham, argued that they used reasonable force to restrain Mr Healer, who had been arrested on suspicion of breaching bail conditions and assaulting a police officer.
Both men had exemplary records during their time in the police and the incident last year was described as being out of character.
Steven Crossley, for Harvey, said: "The consequences of these convictions for Mr Harvey has already been great.
"He's someone who prides himself on being a good police officer, prides himself on his reputation.
"Of course, there has been devastating damage to that reputation as a result of these convictions. That represents real punishment to him."
Sentencing both men, Oliver Johnson, chair of the bench, said: "The greater punishment you will have received today is not the fine but the fact that your position in society will be severely downgraded in a bad way.
"Your unblemished character has gone."
Speaking outside court after the sentencing, father-of-six Mr Healer said he was happy with the outcome.
He said he would be pursuing a claim for compensation for injuries to his spine, which he said he received as a result of the assault.
He said: "At the end of the day, it's the consequences of what they did in society that's going to affect them.
"It's a shame that two people have ruined their careers over this."
Mr Healer continued: "As far as I'm concerned, it's over now."
Stephen Gowland, Mr Healer's solicitor, said: "Mr Healer suffered a great injustice but today at least he can be content that justice has been done."
He added: "My client's life has been affected greatly by the treatment he received both mentally and physically and he now has to live with severe pain for the rest of his life, due to the serious spinal injuries incurred in this incident."
Mr Gowland said Mr Healer was lucky to be alive after the assault.
"Stephen Harvey and Michael Mount were tasked to ensure the safety of the public and uphold the law and failed to do so," he said.
"Since 1990, nearly 1,000 people have died in police custody in England and Wales. My client thought he was going to die in the police station and it is only through luck that he was not part of those statistics."